A role of breeding in improvement of apple assortment in Russia
A role of breeding in the improvement of apple assortment in Russia and the efficiency of apple breeding in nine research institutions of the country are shown in this paper. New apple cultivars included in the state register of breeding achievements approved for use in 2018 are indicated for each institution. The main authors of each cultivar are also indicated. From 18 to 49 years are required to release a cultivar. It is shown that on the reduction of time for the variety creation affect original forms, rootstocks with reduced vigour, the combination of stages of the selection process (most notably, primary and state trials). Greater period is spent from the inclusion of cultivars in the state register to the widespread introduction of them into production. So, from 27 to 30 years were spent for the widespread introduction of Sinap Orlovsky, Orlik and Orlovskoye Polosatoye, which are now popular and occupy large areas of orchards. In this regard, it is proposed to start the production test of the best new apple varieties in the breeding institutions of their cultivation and industrial gardens already in the transfer of a variety to the state test. It is noted that national breeding has given scab immune cultivars to the production. 23 scab immune apple cultivars have been developed and released in VNIISPK. Domestic columnar apple cultivars, introduced into production, allow creating super-intensive gardens. First in Russia and round the world, triploid apple cultivars have been created at VNIISPK as a result of crosses of diploids and tetraploids. Triploid cultivars give regular yields of more marketable fruit and have higher self fertility. Breeders have developed more productive apple cultivars in all 12 regions of Russia.
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